"valueMapping" in a filter element?

Current situation: An App user has to select a single value from a filter element to update the content of a table. However, the column on which the filter works contains “technical” names that the user is not familiar with and therefore should not see.

Desired scenario: The values shown in the filter element are not the column’s actual content, but are mapped to a second column that contains “user-friendly labels” and which are then shown in the filter.

I imagine this to work similar to table elements’ valueMapping where the values shown in particular column are not the actual values but are instead taken from a second source via a mapping. Can a similar behavior be achieved for a filter element?

Given your description of the current situation, I would suggest to join your label column to all relevant datasets beforehand and then apply the filter only at this label column.
If you want to store this value mapping information only in one centralized table, you can construct a solution with syncSets, but I guess this is a much more complex approach